Neutrality and Accounting Ethics

Cultural Relativism and Abortion Essay

Section A: Cultural Relativism

After reading and analysing each ethical theory, I concluded that cultural relativism was the most moral and just. It is believed that all ethical and moral systems are equally valid and that no single system can be judged to be good or evil on its own. Culture-wise, these ethical frameworks differ. Depending on the society, each person believes that their moral convictions are correct. Because all cultures and belief systems must be equally accepted and valid, there can be no such thing as a good or bad morality. People evaluate other cultures’ ethical standards or systems in light of their own. In the contemporary world, the idea of cultural relativism effectively stands out. Terms like “tolerance,” “acceptance,” and “pluralism” now have different meanings. This is due to the term’s broadened definition of culture. The way these principles are described in the current world has made it possible to justify practically anything.

The theory of cultural relativism aids in our understanding of the conflicting views of right and wrong held by many cultures. For instance, modern societies might condemn any society that views dying hair green as an offensive act, but taking a closer look at that society’s cultural perspective might alter our opinion of that particular behaviour. If dying hair green were disagreeable because it was seen as a sign of prostitution from a cultural standpoint, other cultures would comprehend that dying is not a problem; prostitution is what is thought to be bad.

Thus, cultural relativism makes it possible for people from all cultures to comprehend one another’s perspectives, ideologies, and sense of morality. Our perception of morality is influenced by the concepts of relativism and cultural diversity. There is a need for such a theory or the understanding that no good or bad exists in morality based on cultural differences if people from different cultural backgrounds do not understand or consider other cultural ethics wrong or bad. 

The idea of cultural relativism forbids people from not just critiquing or evaluating the morals or codes of others, but also from criticising their own. In contrast to the Divine Command Theory, which holds that God only orders what is right, this is not the case. There are numerous different religions, each with its own set of principles. Some people practise monotheism, others polytheism, and still others are atheists. These distinctions then result in a clear conflict between the moral standards because each person will assert that their God says one thing is right and another is wrong. The egoism philosophy places more emphasis on one’s ideas, thoughts, and perceptions than cultural relativism, which teaches us how to accept and understand other people’s code of ethics. It asserts that whatever someone feels to be true is true, and whatever they believe to be false is false. “ According to Macaulay, there is just one assumption about human nature that is unquestionably and universally true: “Men always act in their own best interests” ( Hobbes continues to hold the position that a person’s pleasure comes before all other free actions in terms of importance. Cultural relativism cannot account for this emphasis on personal interests.

According to the utilitarianism theory, acts and behaviours are morally justified or immoral based on how they affect other people. It rejects morality systems based on beliefs, practises, or traditions. Sometimes both positive and terrible outcomes can result from an activity, and vice versa. According to this perspective, the criterion is still insufficient for morality. Immanuel Kant is credited with developing the morals theory known as Kantian ethics. He claimed that the moral code served as the foundation for reason. Whatever the individual desire or any other principle that can be discerned by reason, rationalism determines what is right or wrong. However, motivations for doing anything could be deceptive. In virtue ethics, the character of the person is prioritised over the actions themselves.

Therefore, in my opinion, the theory of cultural relativism is almost morally and ethically correct. It promotes the ideas of harmony and respect for one another’s diversity. Additionally, it fosters the idea of tolerance. Additionally, it teaches us to avoid passing judgement on the views, practises, and cultures of others. The desire to learn more about one another and to compare moral codes is sparked by knowledge of one another’s cultures, customs, and traditions as well as by information about their codes of ethics and morality. As a result, there is no absolute standard for what is good or bad. The actions of individuals are either good or bad in light of cultural relativism.

Section 2: Abortion

A method or technique that tries to end the pregnancy before the delivery might be described as an abortion. Miscarriage is distinct from abortion. A miscarriage is a type of spontaneous abortion in which the embryo or foetus dies in the mother’s uterus before being expelled by the body. The mother’s health is put at danger by late-term abortions. Either surgical procedures or drugs are used to induce abortions. Many women have and still do want to abort their pregnancies for a variety of reasons. Abortion has always been a moral or ethical topic of discussion. On the subject, all the major religions have taken a firm stance. 

Cultural Relativism and Abortion Essay

When I first read Thomas’ views and opinions on the act of abortion, I became convinced that yes, moms must have the freedom to live a healthy lifestyle and make the option to terminate the pregnancy. Marquis’ method of presenting his thesis on abortion, however, took a provocative tone. He made no overt claims that abortion is morally wrong or that the decision to have one is entirely up to the mother. He meticulously constructed his case before leading us to the conclusion. His claim is well-supported by a number of strong pieces of evidence. We can all agree that killing an adult is a morally repugnant and illegal conduct.

Similar to this, when a mother chooses to have an abortion, she kills her unborn child who does have a right to life. The child, who is still an embryo at that time, is denied life, food, and a full future. As a result, in my opinion, Thomas is in a weaker position than the Marquis. Abortion is and must be considered as an immoral act unless there’s a dangerous threat to the life of the mother.


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