Managing Organisational Change

Organisational change is a necessary process that business leaders initiate to remain competitive in the industry. The change will be implemented to improve the performance and productivity of the organization (Dwivedi, 2023). A case study of Glenrothes Colliery is selected as the company faced different challenges while implementing organisational change. Australian coalmine organisation focused on implementing a new employee performance appraisal system. The case study focuses on the resistance encountered by miners and other non-management operative employees at the Glenrothes Colliery. Difficulties and challenges emerged during the change process when the organisation introduced a new performance appraisal system. The analysis explores the scenario of low performance in coalmine organisations and the broader implications for organisations seeking to adopt new approaches within their existing structures.

Describing Issues during Change in Coalmine Organisation

Glenrothes Colliery is a multinational coalmine company in Australia whose Chief Executive Officer (CEO) implemented a new employee performance appraisal system. CEO discusses the process with mine managers and assign duties of senior level manager to implement the process. Pre-implementation planning did not involve employees and non-management operative employees, which led to resistance to workplace change. Lack of employee involvement leads to resistance during the implementation of significant changes. Employees feel a culture of managerial domination, which reduces their trust in organisations. The employees perceived the change as managerial domination and a lack of transparency. The case study highlights the importance of involving employees in the change management process, especially when implementing new systems or practices that directly impact their work. 

Analysis of Issue in Coalmine Company

Several factors contributed to low performance in Glenrothes Colliery. The primary issue is the CEO’s unilateral decision to introduce the new employee performance appraisal system without consulting employees. A top-down managerial approach lowers the morale and performance of the workforce and non-management operative employees. Implementing major organisational changes without involving employees leads to resistance as employees feel that their perspectives remain unconsidered, leading to pushback against the change. Involving employees in the decision-making and planning process can help build their understanding of the change and generate buy-in. The CEO at Coalmine Company cannot address the challenges faced by employees without involving them in the decision-making process. The issue highlighted the practical and financial challenges associated with the change as it brings resistance and costly implementation of organisational change. 

The resistance to the new performance appraisal system can be understood within the context of the miners’ collective identity as an occupational community. Changes that threaten this shared identity are met with resistance, as employees fear the potential loss of job security, competence, relationships, and a sense of belonging. Analysis of the case study informed that employees and managers have differing perceptions of the change process. Managers perceive organisational change as a good initiative, but employees perceive it differently. Gaps in understanding and expectations between different groups of the organization lead to change resistance. The difference in perceptions between employees and managers support different culture within the organization, such as corporate and organisational culture. The manager supports a corporate culture which focuses on managerial dominance. However, employees support organizational culture, which emphasizes employee involvement in the decision-making process. Introducing the employee performance appraisal system led to a reduction in workforce trust and a decline in performance. The absence of clear communication about the appraisal system leads to confusion among employees. When employees do not understand how the change will affect them or their careers, it can lead to resistance. The issue analysis at Glenrothes Colliery highlighted the need to manage employee resistance at the workplace by using effective measures. 

Conversational Conceptual Framework

A conversational conceptual framework was used to determine the impact of change in Coalmine Company by introducing a new employee performance appraisal system. 


Implementing a new system led to employee resistance, which can be understood through academic ideas about resistance to change. Social identity theory helps explain how employees in the coalmine company perceive themselves and how their social identities may be affected by the proposed changes in the organisation (Mühlemann et al., 2022). Theory can be used to anticipate how employees might react to changes that could impact their sense of identity within the coal mining community. Theory suggests that individuals categorize themselves into various social groups, and their self-concept is closely tied to their group memberships. In the case of the Glenrothes Colliery, employees’ resistance to the new performance appraisal system can be explained through social identity theory. The change threatened the collective identity of the miners, which led to resistance as employees perceived the change as a threat to their identity and shared values. 

Lewin Change Model. Lewin’s model of change can be used to address the changes in Coalmine Company. The model consists of three stages: unfreezing, changing, and refreezing (Burnes, 2020). The first stage prepares the organisation for change, and academic ideas about resistance to change can help understand employees’ perspectives. Employees were familiar with the company’s culture of innovation and were resistant to the changes imposed by the new appraisal system. Lewin’s model suggests that unfreezing creates awareness of the need for change in the organisation. The leaders communicate the reasons behind the change and address employees’ concerns and uncertainty about the impact of the appraisal system on their roles and the organisation’s culture. The second stage of Lewin’s model involves implementing the change. The third stage is to solidify the change to adapt to the new norm of the organisation. Lewin’s model suggests that reinforcements are needed to establish the change (Adam, 2022). In the Glenrothes Colliery context, the change model addresses employee resistance and supports adapting to the new culture of the employee appraisal system.


Communication is essential for the implementation of organisational change. The clear communication gap between the CEO and employees was seen during the introduction of the new employee performance appraisal system. The CEO failed to communicate the rationale behind implementing the new system, which led to employee resistance. Employees needed help understanding the reasons for change, which brought challenges for new change. Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model can describe academic ideas for the importance of communication during change (Miles et al., 2023). Kotter emphasises the importance of effectively creating and communicating a compelling vision to gain employee buy-in. The CEO did not use a change model, which brought challenges in making the organisation change. Kotter’s model highlights that effective communication is crucial for building a shared vision and gaining buy-in from employees during change. Leaders must communicate the vision and need for change with employees to implement the new change smoothly. Communication theories such as the Shannon-Weaver model also describe the importance of message encoding and decoding (Getchell, Dubinsky and Lentz, 2023). Senior-level managers did not encode the change message effectively, and employees did not decode it, which contributed to the communication breakdown. 


Effective leadership played a role in the change process at Coalmine Company. Senior-level managers applied a new performance appraisal system, which resulted in resistance and a decline in innovation. The CEO used the transactional leadership style, which did not emphasize collaboration. Senior manager and CEO leadership approach of applying a new system without considering organisational culture and employee concerns created resistance. There is a need to adapt transformational leadership to involve the employees and managers in the change process. The ability to adapt to the new approach by considering the concerns and feedback of employees played a role in the success of the adapted change process. The leadership approach demonstrates the importance of flexibility during change, which aligns with academic ideas around change management (Mansaray, 2019). 

ADKAR Framework. Managing resistance to new employee performance needs an effective approach. Academic ideas OF employee involvement described by the ADKAR (Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability, and Reinforcement) framework will help in managing resistance (Kolbergytė and Dromantaitė, 2022). ADKAR model’s first component helps address the reason for change resistance. Resistance stemmed from a lack of awareness, and employees were unaware of the reasons behind the change. Desire in the ADKAR framework represents the motivation to change and improve employee involvement in decision-making. Senior-level managers involve employees in the decision-making process to develop a sense of ownership to achieve successful organisational change. Knowledge in the ADKAR model focuses on the employee and user needs to implement the change successfully. Providing employees with the knowledge and resources is essential in addressing resistance. CEO approach focused on involving employees in change, which included providing them with the knowledge required for the new appraisal system. Ability in the ADKAR framework emphasises that employees must be capable of implementing the change successfully. Senior-level manager at Coalmine Company involved employees in the change initiative, which helped in enhancing employees’ abilities. Reinforcement in the ADKAR framework refers to mechanisms to sustain the change over time. The adaptive approach by senior-level managers and CEOs recognises the need for ongoing reinforcement to ensure that the change becomes ingrained in the organisation’s culture (Kolbergytė and Dromantaitė, 2022). The conversational conceptual framework demonstrates the importance of addressing resistance, effective communication, and leadership in managing organisational change (Blackman et al., 2022). 

Theoretical Insights

Glenrothes Colliery’s case study offers several theoretical insights for understanding how organisations can adapt to new approaches, especially when they challenge their existing culture and practices. The case study underscores the role of organisational culture in shaping an organisation’s response to change. When introducing a new approach, it must align with the existing culture or be adapted to respect the cultural strengths and values. Leadership plays a crucial role in guiding the adaptation process. Using transformational leadership will help the CEO and senior-level manager to involve employees in the decision-making process and retain cultural aspects that add value (Khan et al., 2020). Rather than a one-size-fits-all approach, organisations must tailor change initiatives to preserve cultural elements that drive innovation while addressing improvement areas (Lee and Lee, 2021).

The case study of Coalmine Company implementing a new performance appraisal system provides a practical example of managing organisational change through a conversational conceptual framework. It demonstrates how resistance, communication, leadership, adaptation, and employee involvement are critical elements in the change process. Analysis shows how these academic ideas can be applied and how they are interconnected and need to be carefully balanced for successful change implementation. Using different approaches and theories related to organisational change helps understand the importance of change in organisations (Hubbart, 2022). Case study analysis provides a holistic understanding of organisational changes by linking the approaches to organisational change and the interplay of theory and practice. 

The new employee performance appraisal system at Glenrothes Colliery brings subsequent resistance from employees, leading to ethical concerns regarding the well-being of employees. Employees face challenges in pursuing the job, such as stress, job insecurity, and work-related stress. Ethical dilemmas also arise due to communication breakdown between leaders and employees under the transactional leadership of senior-level managers and CEOs (Campbell, Phillips and Phillips, 2020). Employees could not understand the reason for the change initiative, which directly affected their work commitment and organisational productivity. Implementing an appraisal system led to questions of equity, as some employees may have perceived the changes as biased. The analysis emphasises the importance of addressing ethical dimensions in change management and provides recommendations that align with ethical principles. Demonstrating awareness of ethical dimensions and a commitment to addressing them is necessary to bring effective change within the context of the Glenrothes Colliery case study.

Critical Reflection

Analysis of the Glenrothes Colliery case study provides valuable insights into the challenges and issues faced during organizational change in the coal mine industry. The analysis offers a thorough examination of the issues encountered during the implementation of the new employee performance appraisal system. It highlights the unilateral decision-making by the CEO, the lack of employee involvement, and the resulting resistance. The application of various change management theories, such as Social identity theory, Lewin’s change model, Kotter’s 8-step change model, and the ADKAR framework, provide in-depth insights related to managing organisational change. It demonstrates a strong theoretical foundation for understanding the challenges and potential solutions in the context of the Glenrothes Colliery case study. The analysis appropriately underscores the critical roles of communication and leadership in managing organizational change. It highlights the breakdown in communication between the CEO and employees and the need for an adaptive and transformational leadership approach. The analysis provides practical insights into how the challenges could have been addressed. It suggests involving employees in decision-making, providing clear communication, and adapting leadership styles to foster employee engagement during change. Analysis delves into the concept of organizational culture, emphasizing the differences between corporate culture and organizational culture. Critical reflection provides in-depth insights related to organisational change and highlights the need for employee involvement to implement the change successfully. Implication of the case study focuses on using different strategies to meet the unique needs of employees in the organisations. Aligning theoretical frameworks with practical approaches can be effective in managing organisational change. The involvement of employees in the change process under transformational leadership has significant implications. It demonstrates that employee participation can reduce resistance and lead to better change outcomes. The analysis informed that organisations should strive to preserve valuable aspects of culture while evolving to meet new challenges (Blackman et al., 2022). 

Strengths of the Analysis

The analysis employs different theoretical frameworks, such as Social Identity Theory, Lewin’s, ADKAR, Kotter’s 8-Step Change, and Shannon-Weaver models. The theoretical framework provides a strong basis for understanding the dynamics of organisational change. The analysis provides a comprehensive examination of the issues faced during organizational change in the coalmine industry. The analysis underscores the importance of leadership, communication, and employee involvement to manage the resistance related to change. The analysis offers practical recommendations for addressing the identified issues by using theoretical foundations of change management models (Errida and Lotfi, 2021). Analysis successfully connects theoretical insights to the practical challenges faced by Coalmine Company and shows how theoretical frameworks can inform and guide real-world decision-making during change. 

Weaknesses of the Analysis

The analysis explores the differences and communication breakdown between leaders and employees. This provides limited insight into the financial impact of the change at Coalmine Company. Financial consideration can help in analysing the organisation’s performance before and after the change, which would have strengthened the argument. The analysis focuses primarily on managerial decisions and actions. Including more about the perspectives and experiences of the employees at Glenrothes Colliery would provide a more balanced view of the situation. The analysis provides a comprehensive description of the theories’ applicability but does not provide limitations in the specific context of the coalmine industry. Certain aspects, such as resource dependency, are not thoroughly explored. Providing a deeper discussion of all other aspects during organisational change would enhance the analysis of a particular case study (Rashid et al., 2019).

Personal Experiences of Organisational Change

My personal experiences of organisational change have underscored the lesson learned from the Glenrothes Colliery case study. I have witnessed the power of employee involvement to reduce the resistance to change and facilitate smoother transitions. The ethical considerations also align with my experiences, emphasising transparency and fairness in managing change. My experiences have demonstrated that adaptability is an effective skill for change leaders, as strict approaches can lead to resistance and failure of change. One notable experience involved a change initiative that closely mirrored the challenges faced by Coalmine Company. The introduction of a change by implementing an employee performance appraisal system created resistance among employees. Senior-level managers and the CEO at the time failed to communicate the reasons for the change, leading to employee resistance and lower work commitment. Fostering a culture of communication helps lower the resistance and successfully implement the change. Personal experience reinforces the importance of leadership and communication in managing change effectively (Rizvi and Popli, 2021).

Impact on Future Career

Insights from the Glenrothes Colliery case study analysis can potentially shape my future career in several ways. Leadership approaches such as transformational and adaptive styles provide insights into flexible and adaptive behaviour to implement the change (Brown and Abuatiq, 2020). Employee involvement, adaptive behaviour, and collaboration will help manage organisational change. In my future career, I will adopt a leadership style that is responsive to the specific needs and culture of the organisation, as a one-size-fits-all approach does not work in different situations. Emphasis on ethics in change management will also influence my leadership style. I will prioritise fairness and transparency principles to mitigate the challenge during the change process. The case study analysis reinforced theoretical frameworks with practical approaches to managing real-world change management situations. I continue to leverage academic theories to guide decision-making in real-world organisational contexts. Recognising the complexity of resistance has taught me to manage hesitant behaviour with effective strategies (Waeger and Weber, 2019). I will work to understand the underlying causes of resistance and address them effectively. The implications of the case study help me align the theoretical perspective with practice to manage change in complex organisational contexts (Raeder and Bokova, 2019).

Conclusion (Managing Organisational Change)

Analysis of the Glenrothes Colliery case study on organisational change provides deep insights related to organisational change. A conversational conceptual framework was used to analyse the case study related to the introduction of a new employee performance appraisal system in Coalmine Company. Framework provides deep insights using a different resistance, communication and leadership model. Academic insights help develop an understanding of leadership approaches, effective communication, and change management models. Social identity theory, Lewin’s change model, ADKAR, Shannon-Weaver and transformational leadership were used to analyse the case study. The strength of the analysis is the effective application of theoretical frameworks to develop a clear connection between theoretical insights and practical application. The analysis offers valuable lessons for organisations to manage the change effectively. Organisational change resonates with personal experiences, which help in managing the challenges of the change process in future. Glenrothes Colliery case study provides a comprehensive overview for approaching change initiatives with a theoretical perspective, contributing to a successful organisational transformations.


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