Sample Undergraduate 2:2 Nursing Report
The first section of this paper will define type 2 diabetes and outline how it varies from type 1 diabetes. There will be a brief review of the diagnosis process. From a nursing viewpoint, general non-pharmacological and pharmaceutical strategies to control type 2 diabetes will be covered. As a result, nurses’ roles in providing care for patients with type 2 diabetes will be outlined.
What is Type 2 Diabetes?
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic illness characterised by insulin resistance, according to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (2017). In contrast, type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder in which the body’s immune system assaults the beta cells in the pancreas that are responsible for producing insulin, according to Diabetes.co.uk (2018). Hyperglycemia, often known as high blood sugar, is caused by insulin resistance, which is the body’s inability to utilise insulin effectively and insufficient insulin production (NICE 2017). This may result in issues down the road. Type 2 diabetes frequently leads to long-term consequences include retinopathy, cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, and neuropathy (Diabetes UK, 2017).
How is it Diagnosed?
It is crucial to emphasise that a person must first receive a type 2 diabetes diagnosis in order for nursing to manage the condition. Polydipsia (excessive thirst), polyuria (frequent urine), polyphagia (increased hunger), acute fatigue, and abrupt loss of muscle mass are all typical signs of type 2 diabetes (Diabetes.co.uk, 2018). So, the best course of action is to suggest that a person seek medical attention, such as by making an appointment with a GP, if they suffer any of these symptoms. To monitor the patient’s blood glucose level, the doctor will prescribe a urine and blood test (National Health Service 2017).
Depending on the patient’s requirements, certain care treatments will be given when type 2 diabetes has been verified. This is in line with NICE’s (2017) assertion that type 2 diabetes care must be tailored to the patient. This entails delivering care interventions that are specifically suited to the patient’s needs and circumstances while taking into account their individual concerns and preferences, comorbidities, and risk from polypharmacy. Whatever limitations the person may have, such as a vision impairment, should be part of the individualised treatment. This strategy is supported by the National Health Service, which stipulates in its Constitution that NHS services must reflect and be coordinated and adjusted to the requirements and preferences of patients and their families (Department of Health & Social.
In terms of nursing, the Nursing and Midwifery Council (2015) states in its Code that nurses must pay attention to and address the needs and preferences of their patients. This is crucial because it will enable the nurses to recognise and prioritise the patient’s needs related to type 2 diabetes and so deliver specially designed and suitable care interventions. Essentially, this emphasises how patient- or person-centered care is applied in the nursing management of type 2 diabetes. By stating in its Principles of Nursing Practice that nurses must promote and deliver care that places patients, their carers, and families at the centre and supports them in making educated decisions about their own care and treatment, the Royal College of Nursing (2018) endorses this. According to a study by Williams et al. (2016), the patient-centered treatment strategy may play a significant role in how well type 2 diabetics take care of themselves.
The nurse management of type 2 diabetes must be individualised; as a result, it must be customised to the patient’s unique needs as determined by a specific assessment. In accordance with the idea of patient-centered care, the patient’s care management should take into account the patient’s own choices and circumstances. The right health education is a component of general nursing interventions. In order to guarantee that the patient fully understands the information supplied, it should be presented in the simplest way feasible. The content of which should include lifestyle modification advice particularly on the increase of physical exercise and dietary changes as non-pharmacological means to manage blood glucose level. To provide the greatest guidance and information to the individual with type 2 diabetes, referral to the proper personnel may be required. It’s crucial to encourage better adherence to the prescribed treatment plan, including the use of metformin, in order to avoid difficulties.