Unit 3 Organization And Behaviour


Organizations are complex entities that rely on a multitude of interconnected components, including their organizational structure, employee behavior, and the integration of technology. Managing the day-to-day operations of an organization can be a formidable task, especially when considering the inherent unpredictability of employee conduct. Therefore, gaining insight into various organizational theories and approaches becomes paramount for a comprehensive understanding of how organizations function effectively.

This report presents a case study of ASDA, a prominent company, aiming to delve into key aspects of its organizational framework. It will explore ASDA’s organizational structure, delve into the prevailing organizational culture, examine the leadership styles in practice, analyze the adoption of organizational and motivational theories, discuss the significance of teamwork within the company, and assess the impact of technology on ASDA’s operations.

By scrutinizing these dimensions, this report will offer valuable insights into how ASDA strategically manages its resources, influences employee behavior, and leverages technology to accomplish its organizational objectives. ASDA’s ability to strike a balance between these critical elements is fundamental to its sustained success and competitiveness in the ever-evolving business landscape.

LO 1 – Understand the Relationship Between Organizational Structure and Culture

P 1.1 – Compare and Contrast ASDA PLC’s Organizational Structure and Culture with British Airways

Organizational structure refers to how an organization arranges its people based on roles, responsibilities, and authority levels. Two common types of organizational structures are hierarchical (tall) and flat. ASDA follows a hierarchical structure, characterized by multiple management layers, where decision-making predominantly occurs at the top. British Airways, on the other hand, utilizes a flat structure, which has fewer management layers, encourages employee involvement in decision-making, and promotes quick decision-making based on a common goal.

ASDA also employs a functional division within its organizational structure, grouping employees based on their functions, such as accounting, human resources, and marketing. In contrast, British Airways uses a divisional structure, grouping employees based on products or services. This approach facilitates a focus on customer care.

Organizational culture represents the shared values, beliefs, goals, and behavior within an organization. ASDA’s culture is communal, emphasizing client service, mutual respect, integrity, and excellence, reflecting high levels of sociability and solidarity. In contrast, British Airways, which previously focused on customer satisfaction, transitioned to a communal culture over time.

P 1.2 – Explain How the Relationship Between ASDA’s Structure and Culture Impacts Its Performance

The performance of any organization hinges on its organizational structure and the behavior of its employees. A well-structured organization ensures clarity, minimizes confusion, and enhances efficiency. Employee satisfaction, influenced by the organization’s culture, significantly impacts performance. Both structure and culture play pivotal roles in improving customer satisfaction, as well as employee and organizational performance.

ASDA’s hierarchical and functional structure necessitates a communal culture to mitigate disadvantages like limited communication between groups and dissatisfaction among lower-level employees. Communal culture fosters solidarity and sociability, aligning with ASDA’s goals and enabling better performance.

P 1.3 – Discuss the Factors Influencing ASDA’s Employee Behavior at Work

Several factors influence employee behavior within ASDA:

  • Communication: Effective communication within an organization is a cornerstone for fostering interest and creativity in work. It enables managers to connect with their team members, encouraging them to express their ideas and concerns. ASDA has demonstrated its commitment to improving communication through initiatives like “Your Voice” in 2013, which aimed to gather feedback and insights from employees, further enhancing communication channels.
  • Culture: Organizational culture also plays a pivotal role in shaping individual behavior at work. When an organization shares a common objective and maintains consistent rules and regulations, it creates a sense of security and satisfaction among employees. ASDA’s communal culture, characterized by sociability and solidarity, reinforces positive individual behavior by promoting respectful and harmonious interactions within the organization.
  • Leadership: Leadership is another critical factor influencing employee behavior. Effective leaders who take the time to understand their team members, both professionally and personally, can identify and address individual problems and challenges. ASDA’s leadership practices, including equal treatment and respect for all employees, have proven successful in maintaining positive employee behavior.
    ASDA recognizes the significance of individual behavior within its workforce and actively strives to provide a conducive environment where employees feel valued and motivated. These efforts contribute to a more engaged and productive workforce, ultimately benefiting the organization as a whole.

LO 2 – Understand Different Approaches to Management and Leadership

P 2.1 – Compare the Effectiveness of Leadership Styles in ASDA and British Airways

Leadership styles can be categorized based on various theories, each with distinct characteristics and impacts on organizations. For instance, the Michigan and Ohio theories classify leadership styles into task-oriented, relationship-oriented, and participative.

British Airways, under the leadership of Willie Walsh, predominantly followed a task-oriented leadership style. In this approach, the emphasis was on achieving specific tasks and objectives, often prioritizing task completion over building extensive relationships with employees. The leadership focus was on providing necessary resources and directives to ensure tasks were completed efficiently.

In contrast, ASDA adopts a relationship-oriented leadership style. Here, managers prioritize establishing and maintaining healthy relationships with their subordinates. This approach emphasizes collaboration, open communication, and a supportive work environment, which aligns with ASDA’s commitment to fostering positive employee relations.

Another classification of leadership styles includes transactional and transformational leadership. British Airways primarily employed a transactional leadership style, where employee motivation was driven by rewards and, at times, punishments, with salaries serving as a significant motivating factor.

ASDA, on the other hand, leans towards a transformational leadership style. This approach focuses on inspiring and motivating employees through leadership qualities, leading by example, and instilling a shared sense of purpose and vision. Transformational leaders at ASDA play a pivotal role in fostering a motivated and engaged workforce.

The choice of leadership style can significantly impact an organization’s culture, employee motivation, and overall performance. While British Airways and ASDA may employ different leadership styles based on their unique organizational needs and objectives, both approaches have their merits and effectiveness in specific contexts.

P 2.2 – Identify Organizational Theories Practiced at ASDA and Explain Their Relevance

Organizational theories provide valuable frameworks for comprehending the functioning of organizations and their interactions with the external environment. When ASDA merged with Wal-Mart, it faced significant changes that demanded adept management decisions. In this context, organizational theories served as guiding principles for ASDA’s management, assisting them in addressing employee concerns and preserving trust during the transitional period. This practical application of organizational theories underscores their relevance in effectively managing organizational changes.

By drawing upon established theories, ASDA’s management could analyze and respond to the challenges arising from the merger. These theories offer insights into employee behavior, motivation, and communication dynamics, enabling management to make informed decisions. As a result, ASDA was able to navigate the complexities of the merger, minimize disruptions, and maintain a positive work environment. This case demonstrates the tangible benefits of incorporating organizational theories into real-world management practices, reinforcing their importance in guiding organizational decisions and strategies during periods of change.

P 2.3 – Evaluate Different Approaches to Management in ASDA and British Airways

ASDA’s organizational structure, characterized by its hierarchical and functional design, promotes a relationship-oriented management approach. This structure emphasizes the importance of fostering strong relationships within the organization. Managers at ASDA prioritize understanding the individual needs and motivations of their employees and aligning them with the company’s overarching goals. By doing so, ASDA creates a sense of unity and shared purpose among its workforce, which contributes to the organization’s overall success.

In contrast, British Airways employs a divisional organizational structure, which leads to a different management approach. This structure revolves around various product divisions, and employees are trained to specialize in their respective areas. British Airways places a strong emphasis on skill development and cross-functional training to ensure that all employees have a comprehensive understanding of the entire operational process. This approach is particularly beneficial for British Airways as it strives to deliver exceptional customer service, relying on employees with diverse skill sets and knowledge to meet various customer needs effectively.

LO 3 – Understand Ways of Using Motivational Theories in Organizations

P 3.1 – Discuss Changes ASDA Could Implement and Their Impact on Employee Motivation

ASDA, like many organizations, experiences periods of change and adaptation. One potential change could involve shifting from a traditional hierarchical organizational structure to a more flattened one, which empowers employees and emphasizes participation and involvement. In such a transformation, a corresponding shift in leadership style would be imperative to maintain and enhance employee motivation.

Moving towards a participative leadership style would be essential in this scenario. Participative leaders actively involve their team members in decision-making processes and encourage them to provide suggestions and feedback. In a flat organizational structure, where employees have more autonomy and responsibility, this leadership approach aligns perfectly. It fosters a sense of ownership and belonging among employees, as their input is valued and incorporated into decision-making.

By encouraging active participation and involvement, participative leadership would contribute to a more motivated and engaged workforce at ASDA during times of change. Employees would feel a stronger connection to the organization and its goals, ultimately leading to higher levels of motivation and performance.

P 3.2 – Compare the Application of Motivational Theories in ASDA

ASDA employs a variety of motivational theories, including Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Vroom’s Expectancy theory, and Equity theory, to guide its approach to employee motivation. Maslow’s theory emphasizes addressing different levels of employee needs, from basic physiological requirements to higher-level self-fulfillment needs. It underscores the importance of creating a work environment that supports employees in achieving their personal and professional aspirations.

Vroom’s Expectancy theory is particularly relevant within ASDA as it aligns with the company’s performance review system. ASDA recognizes and rewards employees based on their measurable efforts and contributions toward achieving organizational goals. This approach embodies Vroom’s theory in practice, motivating employees to exert their best efforts to attain these rewards.

Equity theory ensures that ASDA maintains a fair reward distribution system, enhancing employee perception of fairness within the organization. Among these theories, Vroom’s Expectancy theory is especially well-suited to ASDA’s performance-oriented culture, linking measurable efforts to rewards, and driving motivation and performance among employees.

P 3.3 – Evaluate the Usefulness of Motivational Theories for Managers

Motivational theories hold immense value for managers as they provide valuable insights into the factors influencing employee motivation. Within ASDA, the practical application of these theories, including Vroom’s Expectancy theory, has demonstrated its effectiveness in sustaining high levels of employee motivation.

Vroom’s Expectancy theory, for instance, focuses on the idea that employees are motivated when they believe their efforts will lead to desired outcomes or rewards. ASDA has successfully implemented this theory by ensuring that rewards and recognition are closely tied to employee performance and the effort invested in achieving organizational goals. This approach creates a clear link between individual contributions and the rewards received, which, in turn, keeps employees highly motivated.

By embracing motivational theories like Vroom’s, ASDA’s managers are equipped with a framework to comprehensively understand and address the various factors that impact employee motivation. This results in a workforce that is not only motivated but also aligned with the company’s objectives, ultimately contributing to the organization’s success and overall performance.

LO 4 – Understand Mechanisms for Developing Effective Teamwork in Organizations

P 4.1 – Explain the Nature of Various Groups Among ASDA’s Staff and Their Influence on Behavior

Groups within organizations can take on either a formal or informal structure. Formal groups are deliberately organized by leaders with a specific set of tasks or objectives in mind, serving a structured purpose within the organization. In contrast, informal groups emerge naturally among employees, often forming around shared interests, social connections, or common goals.

ASDA encountered initial challenges related to group behavior during its merger with Wal-Mart. The amalgamation of two distinct organizational cultures and workforces presented hurdles in terms of conflicting group dynamics. Employees who were used to different approaches and objectives struggled to collaborate effectively.

However, ASDA’s management took proactive measures to address these challenges. They recognized the importance of cohesive group behavior and understood that forming new formal groups based on common objectives could help mitigate conflicts and enhance relationships among employees. By strategically aligning teams around shared goals and facilitating better communication, ASDA was able to promote more harmonious group dynamics, ultimately contributing to the success of the merger and fostering a more collaborative organizational culture.

P 4.2 – Discuss Factors Promoting or Inhibiting Effective Teamwork in ASDA

Successful teamwork hinges on several key components, including effective communication, robust recognition systems, and adept leadership. At ASDA, the prioritization of these elements bolsters the culture of teamwork within the organization.

Communication stands as a cornerstone of ASDA’s teamwork ethos. The open channels of communication ensure that team members can readily exchange ideas, share information, and collaborate seamlessly. This transparency nurtures a sense of belonging and trust among employees, thereby fortifying teamwork.

Leadership within ASDA assumes a pivotal role. Strong and visionary leaders not only define team structures but also cultivate an environment that promotes cohesion. Their ability to inspire, guide, and align team efforts towards common goals is instrumental in fostering effective teamwork.

Recognizing and rewarding employee contributions further solidifies the spirit of teamwork. ASDA’s commitment to acknowledging and incentivizing outstanding performance instills a sense of pride and motivation among team members. It reinforces the notion that individual efforts are valued and contribute to collective success, reinforcing the bonds of teamwork.

P 4.3 – Evaluate the Impact of Technology on Team Functioning in ASDA

Technology, including mobile phones and the internet, exerts a dual influence on team dynamics. On one hand, it serves as a potent tool for augmenting communication and bolstering connectivity within teams, fostering collaboration and productivity. It enables team members to remain seamlessly interconnected, regardless of geographical barriers, facilitating swift information exchange and decision-making. However, on the flip side, technology exposes organizations to security vulnerabilities, such as data breaches and cyber threats, necessitating stringent safeguards.

ASDA judiciously harnesses technology to its advantage, leveraging it for diverse purposes like communication, performance assessments, recruitment procedures, and employee training. This strategic utilization contributes significantly to the enhancement of team synergy and overall operational efficiency. Effective communication platforms, digital performance evaluations, online recruitment processes, and technology-driven training initiatives all play pivotal roles in fortifying team functioning within ASDA. Thus, technology, when employed prudently, becomes an indispensable asset in nurturing cohesive and high-performing teams within the organization.


This report underscores the paramount importance of comprehending organizational behavior in the realm of effective management. The interplay between rules, regulations, organizational structure, and culture is pivotal in optimizing a company’s performance. Effective leadership, serving as the guiding force within any organization, plays a critical role in motivating teams and steering them towards shared objectives, thereby enhancing overall efficiency and productivity.

Furthermore, this report accentuates the invaluable contribution of various organizational theories and motivational models to the realm of management decision-making. These theoretical frameworks serve as essential references, aiding management in making informed choices and implementing strategies that align with the organization’s mission and objectives.

The comprehensive examination of ASDA and British Airways’ organizational behaviors conducted in this report has shed light on their distinctive structural arrangements, unique corporate cultures, and diverse strategic approaches. These elements are intrinsically linked to their respective core objectives, underscoring the notion that organizational behavior, effective leadership, and the judicious application of pertinent theories are the bedrock of sustained success for any enterprise.

In summation, the report affirms that a profound understanding of organizational behavior, combined with adept leadership and the judicious application of relevant theories, constitutes the fundamental building blocks of enduring prosperity and excellence for any organization.


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